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Basic Business Definitions and Dictionaries

Dictionaries In Crocker Library

  • Oxford Dictionary of Business and Management  (Reference HF1001 .C63 2006)
  • Dictionary of Business Terms  (Reference HF1001 .C68 1999)
  • Random House Handbook of Business Terms  (Reference HF1001 .N55 1988)
  • Concise Dictionary of Business Management  (Reference HD30.15 .S73 1999)
  • Dictionary of Business and Management  (Reference HF1001 .R79 1993)
  • Dictionary of International Business Terms  (Reference HD62.4 .C36 2004) and (Reference HD62.4 .S54 1998)
  • International Dictionary of Business  (Reference HD30.15 J64 1981)
  • International Dictionary of Finance  (Reference HG151 .B274 2003)
  • Handbook of International Financial Terms  (Reference HG3881 .M578 1997)
  • The New Palgrave Dictionary of Money and Finance  (Reference HG151 .N48 1992)
  • Dictionary of Economics and Business  (Reference HB61 .D49 1985)
  • A Dictionary of Economics and Commerce  (Reference HB61 .H35 1986)
  • McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Modern Economics  (Reference HB61 .M3 1983)
  • Webster's New World Finance and Investment Dictionary  (Reference HG151 .E88 2003)
  • Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms  (Reference HG151 .D69 1998)
  • Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Organizational Behavior  (Reference HD58.7 .B57 1995)
  • Dictionary of Administration and Management  (Reference HD3015 .B3 1981)
  • McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Business Acronyms, Initials & Abbreviations  (Reference HF1002.5 .R67 1992)
  • The Vest-Pocket MBA  (Reference HF5635 .S55295 1997)
  • Understanding American Business Jargon  (Reference HF1001 .F65 1997)

Foreign Language Business Dictionaries in Crocker Library

  • Gale Five Language Finance Dictionary  (Reference HG151 .F58 1993)
  • Dictionary of Asia Pacific Business Terms  (Reference HF1001 .T25 2004)
  • Routledge French Dictionary of Business, Commerce and Finance  (Reference HF1002 .F74 1996)
  • Wiley's English-German/German-English Business Dictionary  (Reference HF1359 .B75 1995)
  • Management Dictionary: English-German  (Reference HF1002 .S622 1979)
  • Cassell English-Japanese Business Dictionary  (Reference HF1002 .F43 1993)
  • Routledge Spanish Dictionary of Business, Commerce and Finance  (Reference HF1002 .R687 1998)
  • Spanish/English Business Glossary  (Reference HF1002 .G65 1997)
  • Wiley's English-Spanish/Spanish-English Dictionary  (Reference HB61 .K323 1996)
  • Harrap's Spanish Business Management Terms  (Reference HD30.15 .A4 1994)
  • Harrap's Glossary of Spanish-English Commercial & Industrial Terms  (Reference HF1002 .H3443 1990)
  • Talking Business in Spanish  (Reference HF1002 .F79 1987)
  • English-Ukrainian Dictionary of Business  (Reference HF1002 .K74 1997)


Online Dictionaries

Basic Business Definitions

10-K: An audited document mandatorialy submitted by a public company to the Securities & Exchange Commision detailing operations and finances within a fiscal year.  A 10-Q is the quarterly reporting of this same information.  A 20-F is the equivalent of the annual report submitted to the SEC by foreign companies trading in the U.S.  

Balance Sheet: A quantitative summary of a company's financial condition at a specific point in time, reflecting assets, liabilities and net worth.

Beta: a measure of the volatility of a stock's price compared to the volatility of the market as a whole.  For example, a stock with a beta of  1.1 is considered ten percent more volatile than the market average.

CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate): the year-over-year growth rate applied to a company's activities on an investment over a multiple year period.  The formula for calculating CAGR is 'Current Value/Base Value'.  Also referred to as the internal rate of return, which can be determined by use of a CAGR Calculator.

Cash Flow / Cash Flow Statement: A measure of the actual cash generated by a company over a period of time, usually reported quarterly or annually and calculated by cash receipts minus cash payments. 

Chapter 11: A chapter in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code which governs the process of a business' or individual's inability to service its debt or pay its creditors as supervised by a bankruptcy court.

Dividend Yield: The total cash dividend payments paid to shareholders divided by the calendar year's high and low market price for the stock.

EPS (Earnings Per Share): The portion of a company's profit allocated to each outstanding share of common stock.  The amount is computed by dividing the company's net earnings by the number of outstanding shares of common stock held by shareholders.

GICS (Global Industry Classification Standard): A standardized industry classification system created by Standard & Poor's and MSCI in 1999, applicable only to S&P metrics and databases.

Income Statement: A document containing a financial summary of a business' financial operations, including net profits and net loss as reflected by the company's revenues and expenses.  The statements typically reflect a specific accounting period (quarterly or annually) or anticipated projections. 

IPO (Initial Public Offering): The first sale of stock to the public by a company, representing their migration from a private business to a public company.

Liquidity: The ability of any asset to be converted into cash quickly and with no depreciation loss.

M&A (Mergers and Acquisitions): An action involving the consolidation of two separate companies through mutual agreement to form a new company, or the acquisition of one business by another through mutual agreement.

NAICS (North American Industrial Classification System): A standardized series of six-digit numeric codes jointly developed by the U.S., Canada and Mexico to replace SIC codes.  It more broadly identifies businesses, industries and business activities cross-regionally throughout North America.

Net Income: A business' gross income minus expenses, taxes and insurance but before depreciation, additions to reserves or distribution of earnings, as reported for any given financial accounting time period.  Also known as an earnings statement.

Operating Revenues: Income earned from the services and reported net sales within any given financial accounting time period.

PPPP (Product, Price, Promotion, Placement - The Four Ps):  A core marketing concept covering four essential variable elements to take into consideration when creating a marketing plan framework.

P/E (Price/Earnings Ratio): The calculated price per share of stock (numerator) divided by the earnings per share of stock (denominator) for any given financial reporting year.

Porter's 5 Forces: Named after Michael E. Porter, this analytical model identifies competitive forces that impact how an industry operates through these values: degree of rivalry, threat of substitutes, buyer power, supplier power, and barriers to entry. 

Proxy Statement (8-K): A document issued by a company to its shareholders (as required by the SEC) detailing material facts concerning matters which the shareholders can vote on, i.e. new additions to the board of directors, salaries and bonuses.

Restated Financials: A reissuing of a company's financial statements normalized for prior years reflecting mergers, acquisitions, spin-offs and other business activities that differed from "originally reported" financials previously submitted to the SEC.

ROI (Return on Investment): The repayment of principle plus the total interest paid and the annual yield generated by an investment or commercial venture.

SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission):  The primary overseer and federal regulatory agency responsible for promoting full disclosure practices in securities markets to protect investors against fraud, created by Congress in 1934.  All public domestic and foreign companies are required to submit financial documents which are made available in EDGAR for shareholders to access.

SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) codes: A standardized series of four-digit numeric codes used to categorize businesses, industries and business activities.  The primary numbers designate major industry groups followed by numbers representing subcategories.  These can be searched through the U.S. Department of Labor's SIC code site.  The classification system was expanded into the six-digit NAICS system in 1997, but SIC codes are still frequently used.

SWOT (Strength/Weakness/Opportunity/Threat) Analysis: An analytical assessment and strategic planning tool comparing a business' internal capabilities with external possibilities.    

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